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### Glossary: A

AKETON
A quilted, padded garment, usually of linen, worn under and sometimes instead of mail.

AVENTAIL
A curtain of mail attached by means of staples around the base of a helmet. This protects the neck and the shoulders.

ARMING CAP
A padded cloth coif worn underneath a maille coif for comfort and protection.

ASPECT RATIO
The mathematical ratio between the diameter of a ring (inner diameter) and the diameter of the wire from which it is made. Often referred to as 'a.r.' or 'AR'. Formula: AR = Ring Inner Diameter/Wire Diamater

AWG
American Wire Guage (AKA Browne & Sharpe) - Somewhat obsolete American(US) wire measurement standard still used for non-ferrous wire and intended for electrical use. Based on electrical resistance in a wire, such that each successive number has twice the resistance of the number below it.

AR
Aspect Ratio The mathematical ratio between the diameter of a ring (inner diameter) and the diameter of the wire from which it is made. Often referred to as 'A.R.' or 'AR'. Formula: AR = Ring Inner Diameter/Wire Diamater

AUSTENITE
A phase of steel in which the metal is in a solid solution. Austenite is stable only above 1333°F in plain carbon steels. Alloying elements aid in stabilization of the form at low temperatures.

ANNEALING
A heat treatment for metals, primarily used to induce softness in the material. Annealing also refines the crystalline structure, removes stresses, and changes electro-magnetic properties of ferrous metals.

ALLOY
Metals prepared by adding other elements to a basic metal in order to attain desirable properties.

ANODIZING
Process of creating an oxide layer on the surface of a metal by anodic treatment. Generally used on niobium, titanium, and aluminum. Results in a thin film of oxide that is often harder than the unoxidized metal beneath, and which can be manupulated via thickness to produce desired colors. In the case of aluminum, dyes can be used to color this layer.

AAR
actual aspect ratio; this is determined if you take into account springback from coiling. (see also I.A.R. (ideal aspect ratio), and aspect ratio)

ANOTI
Anodized Titanium