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European 4 in 1 Seams: 15; 30; 45; and 60 Degrees
Article © MAIL User: mithrilweaver

There has always been a lot of confusion in the chainmaille community regarding the angle of degree in European 4 in 1 seams. This year (2015), I set out to study the possible angles and the actual measured degrees of those angles. What I found may be somewhat surprising to most chainmaillers. Most chainmaillers know about the 60 degree angle seam (some calling it a 45 degree seam), but not many know about the 30 and 15 degree seams. And the most interesting thing I discovered was how to make an actual 45 degree seam (I believe this has not been done before). Below are pictures with descriptions. All rings are 16swg 1/4" ID. Red rings mark the seams. Half of the rings are rubber to save time and to show that all the seams can be done by speed weaving.

15 degree seam. This seam alternates between an expansion/contraction row and a standard European 4 in 1 row. The seam naturally leans to one side unless the expansions/contractions are staggered left/right.

30 degree seam. I first discovered this seam in an article here on the M.A.I.L. website. It leans heavily to one side unless the expansions/contractions are staggered left/right.

60 degree seam. This is the traditional seam of European 4 in 1. It is popular because it is balanced in the middle and does not lean. It is limited because the angle is sharp. It can be difficult to make subtle changes in direction with only 60 degree seams in your tool belt.

45 degree seam. Alternates between 30 degrees and 60 degrees expansions/contractions. The outcome is a seam that averages between the two ~ 45 degrees.

More findings:

The angle of the seam is the same despite any changes in AR, as long as the AR of the rings is the same throughout the sheet.

These seams can also be translated into scales.
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