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Inverted Round-based Weave Progressions & Variants
Article © MAIL User: Chainmailbasket_com


Inverted Round (IR) originally comes from the root weave European 4 in 1. A chain of six rows wide E4-1 constitutes Roundmaille. If half of its rings are folded back (or inverted) during construction, the result is Turkish Round (TR). Because of its sets of three connector rings which form triangles separating each six-ring "box section, it is of triplicate form. The folding back of every ring during the construction of Turkish Round yields Inverted Round.

European 4 in 1
(minimum AR of 2.9, displayed at AR of 3.0)
Image: e4.jpg
(minimum AR of 3.2, displayed at AR of 3.5)
Image: rm.jpg
Turkish Round
(minimum AR of 3.1, displayed at AR of 3.5)
Image: tr.jpg
Inverted Round
(displayed at minimum AR of 3.5)
Image: ir2.jpg


To Inverted Round, captive rings can be added to make Captive Inverted Round (CIR). Captives can also be used in other other weaves too. They work especially well with IR due to its unique composition. A larger AR is required over IR to accommodate the captive rings.

Captive Inverted Round
(minimum AR of 4.7, displayed at AR of 5.9)
Image: cir2.jpg

Reinforcing / Bore Worming (Boring)

Each of boring and reinforcing take the otherwise captive rings and pass them through each cage ring. Building off Inverted Round, the exposed rings on the end of the chain are squished together and made to lean against each other in sequence, thus creating three "eyes" (four or more in quad and further progressions, explained later). A ring is passed through the three openings. This is the basis behind Reinforced Inverted Round (RIR) and Bore Worm (BW), which de-captivate CIR. The no longer captive rings are sometimes referred to as "quasi-captives".

Image: triangle.jpg Image: triangle2.jpg

The ring can be "squished" in either of two ways. This leads to the difference between RIR and BW. With BW, the cage rings in each subsequent cell lean in the same direction. In RIR, they constantly change direction. This gives each weave a different effective cross section (for purposes of staggered sheeting, explained later). The difference between the two is more distinct when fewer quasi-captives are used per cell.

Reinforced Inverted Round
(minimum AR of 4.7, AR of 5.1 (larger is captive))
(displayed at AR of 5.1)
Image: rir.jpg
Bore Worm
(minimum AR of 4.7, AR of 5.0 (larger is captive))
(displayed at AR of 5.1)
Image: bw.jpg

Bore worm is on the left, RIR on the right:
Image: bw_vs_rir.jpg

These functions create weaves that are similar to CIR, but more structurally rigid. While CIR and RIR & BW can all be made tight at the right ARs, because of the added reinforcement, BW and RIR are stronger alternatives. They also solve the problem of the cage rings at the end of the chain not having to be secured without captives falling out, as this is no longer possible.

Quad, Quint, Sext, etc. Progressions:

These functions can be applied to TR, IR, CIR, RIR, and BW (also Hilt Chain & Captive Hilt Chain, and any other triplicate chain weaves) to give them more sides. This always requires the captive rings, when present, to have a larger overall diameter. Each progression increases the required AR, as well as the spread between the size of the cage and captive (or quasi-captve) rings. It makes more sense to use a ring with a larger wire diameter for the captive in extreme progressions to decrease its overall AR requirement to a more reasonable number. Bore Worm is more forgiving than RIR with this kind of progression. I've gone as far as Sept Bore Worm, while stopping at Quint for RIR (Quad for CIR). Quad CIR is very challenging to start, Quint and beyond progressions would be even more so.

Quad (four-sided)
Quad Captive Inverted Round
(displayed at AR of 5.6, AR of 7.4)
Image: qcir.jpg
Quad Reinforced Inverted Round
(displayed at AR of 5.8, AR of 7.2)
Image: qrir.jpg
Quad Bore Worm
(displayed at AR of 5.8, AR of 7.0)
Image: qbw.jpg
Quint (five-sided)
Quint Reinforced Inverted Round
(displayed at AR of 7.2 and AR of 8.8)
Image: qurir.jpg
Quint Bore Worm
(displayed at AR of 7.2 and AR of 8.8)
Image: qubw.jpg
Sext (six-sided)
Sext Bore Worm
(displayed at AR of 7.8 and AR of 11)
Image: sexbw2.jpg

When these functions are applied to BW and RIR, the resulting aesthetic difference is more distinct than with the triplicate versions.


The first CIR-based sheet weave to surface was Captive Inverted Round Sheet (CIRS), which connected chains of CIR with a single sets of connector rings. Shortly after that, the much more rigid and structural Staggered Captive Inverted Round Sheet (SCIRS) was introduced. It doubled up on the number of connector rings between CIR chains by utilizing four of the six half-sides, instead of two. The same staggered sheeting technique was found to work on Quad progressions and Staggered Quad Captive Inverted Round Sheet (SQCIRS) came to be. Triplicate Bore Worm has a symmetrical cross section that divides into six evenly spaced out grooves or ribs. This allows it to become Staggered Bore Worm Sheet (SBWS). Due to Reinforced Inverted Round's cross section, which divides the cage rings into three sets of two leaning in opposition of each other, it can't have the staggered sheeting application applied to it.

The first picture is Bore Worm's cross section, the second is RIR's, and the third image illustrates the nature of why RIR can't be sheeted staggeredly.
Image: bw_cross_section.png Image: rir_cross_section.png Image: rir_cross_section_2.png

The Quad version of RIR, however, has four evenly spaced out ridges, which allows even staggered sheeting capabilities. Thus exists Staggered Quad Reinforced Inverted Round Sheet.

CIR Sheets
RIR Sheets
BW Sheets
Captive Inverted Round Sheet
(displayed at minimum AR of 4.8, AR of 3.8)
(smaller connectors)
Image: cirs.jpg
Staggered Captive Inverted Round Sheet
(displayed at minimum AR of 5.4)
Image: scirs.jpg
Staggered Bore Worm Sheet
(minimum AR of 5.2, displayed at AR of 5.4)
Image: sbws.jpg
Staggered Quad Captive Inverted Round Sheet
(displayed at AR of 6.3, AR of 8.3)
Image: sqcirs.jpg
Staggered Quad Reinforced Inverted Round Sheet
(displayed at AR of 7.2, AR of 8.8, AR of 5.8)
Image: sqrirs2.jpg

Incidentally, Staggered Captive Hilt Chain Sheet has recently surfaced.
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