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Inverting Rows on 90 & 45 Degree Angles
(Both Directions)
Article © MAIL User: Parabellum


I was browsing the weaves and articles pages from the M.A.I.L. and noticed that I am currently using some techniques (from the past 12 years) that I find essential when crafting a hauberk and also noticed that they do not appear there, not even elsewhere over the internet. So, I have decided to share my techniques and knowledge to help people out crafting even better hauberks. In this article, I have included a bunch of pics showing « how to » create the weaves. I have also taken a couple of pics of an actual project that includes such weaves to demonstrate how it can be implemented to craft hauberks, make a round collar for the neck, join a camail to a hauberk and get the « dreaded » armpit out of the picture.

The pictures and procedures below are only the way I invert rows of mail. There are other ways and most known way to invert rows is described here . It works too, but I find this technique to leave « dead spots » between the inverted mails. This is especially true when you are using some larger rings, like 3/8 in. ID. Also, the techniques described below show how to invert rows to 90º in both ways, and they also show how to do it even at a 45º angle, while it is not the case with the one linked above.

So here we go. Let’s start from a simple piece of mail like this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_1.jpg

Next, add one ring at every two rings the way described by the picture below :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_2.jpg

Now, link the added rings in a 1-1 pattern "below" the first piece of mail, just like this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_4.jpg

Here is the back view of the newly added links :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_5.jpg

Once you have done the first "chain", then simply continue to knit on the now inverted direction just like below :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_6.jpg

Again, here is the back view :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_1_7.jpg

Okay, as you may have probably noticed, the "top" view and "back" view are slightly different. I would suggest strongly to keep the back view shown above in the inner side of the hauberk because the first added mail will hurt the shoulders (when used to make a round collar) and will bend with difficulties when using small rings like the one pictured. Allow 3 rows to help the mails' bending. It may takes less rows when using some larger rings.

So, this is for the first inverting method. There are others ways to do it. If you need to change direction from the latter, then again, simply use a standard piece of mail :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_1.jpg

Now, add two rings in the last ring of each row just like this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_2.jpg

And this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_3.jpg

Now, add 1 link in each of the blank spaces between the last ring added, like this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_4.jpg

You're now set, simply continue to add ring to continue to newly created pattern. A couple of rings later, it should give you something like this :

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_7.jpg

Again, here is a shot of the back.

Image: parabellum_invert_90_2_6.jpg

Here you will notice that the "back" view of this weave is the "front" view of the first technique shown at the beginning of the article. I could have just simply turned over the piece of mail and inverted it that way. It would have been easier to do so but I was willing to show you that you can invert rows from the back and bottom view of the piece of mail. However, you will understand that it is more difficult to do like the second technique since the first mails used to invert rows are not facing toward the sky.

There is another technique to invert from a 45º. It is similar to the latter one but all you have to do is to start from a "triangle" of mail. When finished, it should look likes this :

Image: parabellum_invert_45_1_11.jpg

Now, knowing these techniques, you can combine all of them to create round collars for the neck, or attach a coif directly on the hauberk (see pics below). You will notice that the number of rows you actually have is the same number of rows you will have to actually invert. This is because you simply add a 1-1 chain at the end (trim). That way, you can easily predict the number of rows needed for an actual sleeve, or a future collar, or coif, depending of your needs. The added 1-1 chain can serve also to stop the mails of the coif, or the hauberk, to stretch.

Here is a couple of pictures that show how you can implement the inverted rows to join a coif to a hauberk.

This is my friend Agima wearing the hauberk. You will notice that the coif and hauberk are in one single piece.

Image: parabellum_hauberk_2_1.jpg

Here is a close up of the neck where rows have been inverted

Image: parabellum_hauberk_2_2.jpg

Another shot from the back

Image: parabellum_hauberk_2_3.jpg

Again from the back

Image: parabellum_hauberk_2_4.jpg

As you will notice, there is an excess of mail in the neck area simply because this hauberk has been tailored for me. The guy that is wearing it is my friend Agima, who is smaller than me.

This hauberk is currently under some serious « reconstruction »; I will add some long sleeves, make multiple adjustments to fit the body, add other inverting techniques shown here, add some leather garments, etc. I will post pics only when finished and if all goes the way I see it, you will be pleasantly surprised.

Well, that’s it for now. I hope these techniques will serve you in your future projects. If you need to reach me, do not hesitate to contact me at Your comments and suggestions are welcomed.

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