You are not Logged In! -- Please consider creating an account. (It's free!)
This is the BETA version of the Articles Library -- Expect occasional bugs -- Report them to Daemon_Lotos => [Here]
[ Articles Home | Newest Articles | Submit an Article ]
[ Random Article | Search Articles ]

Reinforced Weaves
Article © MAIL User: Chainmailbasket_com

This article examines the reinforcing concept. Weaves containing reinforced rings include chain weaves with a cell structure that enables reinforcement. Weaves of this sort are often also ideal for captivation as reinforced rings can be looked at as an alternate in many cases. Instead of placing captive rings inside cages, reinforcing rings are inserted through the otherwise cage rings changing the properties of the weave. A limited number of chains are ideal for this.

Image: reinforced.jpg

Reinforcing also occurs with the Tao and Not Tao series of units and weaves. In these cases, one of two things happens:

Reinforcing vs. Rhino:


Rhinos Snorting Drano was one of the first weaves to incorporate a similar concept to reinforcing. "Rhinoing", however, intersects with pairs of stacked rings, and is seen in flat weaves that wouldn't otherwise be ideal for captivation. One example of a captive weave that wouldn't allow for a reinforced version is Captive 4 in 2 Chain (4 in 2 Captive). Removal of the captive rings and using what would be reinforcements instead would actually yield a Rhino weave because the base weave is 4 in 2 Chain (doubled 2 in 1 Chain). Removal of captives causes weave collapse, and attempting to reinforce this would cause the center rings to intersect pairs of (collapsed) stacked rings.

Inverted Round


Some of the simplest weaves to utilize the reinforcing concept are those based off Inverted Round (IR). Just as IR becomes Captive Inverted Round (CIR) with the addition of captive rings, it can alternately be reinforced as Bore Worm (BW), or Reinforced Inverted Round (RIR). Rings added become reinforced once they pass through each of the three rings in the IR cell causing those rings to lean up against each other in a "swirl".

Reinforced Inverted Round is the namesake of the reinforcing concept, however, Bore Worm is the more basic version, since the rings lean in the same direction in every cell. It can be said that Bore Worm should have been named Reinforced Inverted Round, and Reinforced Inverted Round should have the word "Alternating" added. That's a matter of technicality though.

Inverted Round
Image: ir.jpg
Captivates asReinforces as
Captive Inverted Round (CIR)
Image: cir.jpg
Bore Worm (BW)*
Image: bw.jpg
Reinforced Inverted Round (RIR)
Image: rir.jpg


*Note: Bore Worm repeats into the chain sheet Staggered Bore Worm Sheet.

Quad IR (and beyond)


The same concept that is applied to IR can be applied to progressions with added faces. Although "Quad Inverted Round" (QIR) (not in weave library) is a messy unstable entity on its own (don’t let the image below fool you, it takes a certain amount of manipulation to properly configure it), it can be captivated or reinforced. Quad Captive Inverted Round, Quad Bore Worm (QBW), and Quad Reinforced Inverted Round (QRIR) are the results. In order to weave these, the captive or reinforced rings must be larger.

"Quad Inverted Round
Image: qir_side.jpg
Captivates asReinforces as
Quad Captive Inverted Round (QCIR)
Image: qcir.jpg
Quad Bore Worm (QBW)
Image: qbw.jpg
Quad Reinforced Inverted Round (QRIR)*
Image: qrir.jpg


*Note: Quad Reinforced Inverted Round repeats into the chain sheet Staggered Quad Reinforced Inverted Round Sheet.

Quint progressions and beyond naturally also allow for captivating/reinforcing. As with the Quad versions, these require a larger reinforced ring, except with a greater difference with each side-adding progression. Please refer to Inverted Round-based Weave Progressions & Variants for more information and examples.

Full Persian 6 in 1


From the Persian weave family, the very popular Full Persian 6 in 1 (FP6-1) captivates or reinforces effectively. Captive Full Persian 6 in 1 (Captured Full Persian) (CFP6-1) requires a smaller captive ring (otherwise a very high AR is the required ). Reinforcing the chain instead is typically done in a single ring size. Because FP6-1 is four-sided, it has eight entry points through which reinforcing rings can pass. This means there are two different standard reinforcing methods available, each of which has an alternate version in which the entry points are alternated with each added cell. Reinforced FP6-1 weaves are refered to as "Wyrms".
When the reinforced rings alternate which rings are passed through in each subsequent cell,
The AR requirements for WW and EW are higher than those of FW and IW.

Full Persian 6 in 1
Image: fp6-1.jpg
Captivates asReinforces as
Captive Full Persian 6 in 1
(Captured Full Persian) (CFP6-1)
Image: cfp6-1.jpg
Fire Wyrm (FW)
Image: fw.jpg
Ice Wyrm (IW)
Image: iw.jpg
Wind Wyrm (WW)
Image: ww.jpg
Earth Wyrm (EW)
Image: ew.jpg


It is an interesting coincidence that "Worm" (in the case of Bore Worm), and "Wyrm" (Fire Wyrm, et al.) ended up being used in weave names to describe the same concept, unbeknownst at the time.

Hilt Chain 6 in 1


Adding two more faces to FP6-1 triplicates it as Hilt Chain 6 in 1 (HC6-1). Captive Hilt Chain 6 in 1 (CHC6-1) uses a single ring size for both the cage and captive rings. Reinforced versions of HC6-1 require a larger reinforced ring. Since HC6-1 has 12 potential entry points through which reinforced rings may pass, there are theoretically eight reinforced versions, and even more if you employ unusual configurations like 3-3-3-3. I've developed six versions, based on four of the initial patterns.

Technically, in HSW the reinforced rings only pass through 2, around 2, through 2, around 2, and the openings that are missed result in two proper cage rings found on opposing sides of this chain.

With either of these designs, alternating which rings in the next cell are reinforced isn't technically feasible, so no alternate version of either is shown.

When the reinforced rings in these two cases alternate which rings are passed through in each subsequent cell,


Hilt Chain 6 in 1 (HC6-1)
Image: hc6-1.jpg
Captivates asReinforces as
Captive Hilt Chain 6 in 1 (CHC6-1)
Image: chc.jpg
Hilt Fire Wyrm (HFW)
Image: hfw.jpg
Hilt Thunder Wyrm (HTW)
Image: htw.jpg
Hilt Lightning Wyrm (HLW)
Image: hlw.jpg
Hilt Wind Wyrm (HWW)
Image: hww.jpg
Hilt Earth Wyrm (HEW)
Image: hew.jpg
Hilt Sun Wyrm (HSW)
Image: hsw.jpg


Box Chain/Byzantine


Captivation of Box (Box Chain) weave is similar to FP6-1, which is made possible with the use of smaller captives. The theory behind reinforcing Box is that it should also be similar to FP6-1, with each type being made with a single ring size. Both Fire/Ice, and Wind/Earth combinations allow for this, but they are naturally looser. The outside Box rings flop around a bit since they're not neatly tucked in as with FP6-1. Likewise, Byzantine can be reinforced with its individual Box cells in either Fire, or Wind configurations.

Box Chain
Image: box.jpg
Captivates asReinforces as
Captive Box (Captive 4 in 1 Box)
Image: cbox.jpg
Reinforced Fire Box
Image: rfbox.jpg
Reinforced Wind Box
Image: rwbox.jpg


Similarly, Roundmaille and Turkish Round can be reinforced.

Example ARs


This chart lists the ARs used to produce the weaves displayed above, and compares the sizes of the cage/quasi-cage rings vs. the captive/reinforced ones. Each sample above contains two captive or reinforced rings per cell, ((C2)/(R2) versions), except Quad Captive Inverted Round ((C1) version). Every sample uses a single wire diameter.

weavecage/quasi cagecaptive/reinforced
Inverted RoundAR of 4.0N/A
Captive Inverted RoundAR of 6.1AR of 6.1
Bore WormAR of 5.2AR of 5.4 (+0.2)*
Reinforced Inverted RoundAR of 5.2AR of 5.4 (+0.2)*
Quad Inverted RoundAR of 5.2N/A
Quad Captive Inverted Round (C1)AR of 5.6AR of 7.4 (+1.8)
Quad Bore WormAR of 6.0AR of 7.2 (+1.2)
Quad Reinforced Inverted RoundAR of 6.2AR of 7.4 (+1.2)
Full Persian 6 in 1AR of 5.9N/A
Captive Full Persian 6 in 1
(Captured Full Persian)
AR of 7.4AR of 5.9 (-1.5)
Fire WyrmAR of 7.0AR of 7.0
Ice WyrmAR of 7.4AR of 7.4
Wind WyrmAR of 7.9AR of 7.9
Earth WyrmAR of 7.9AR of 7.9
Hilt ChainAR of 6.5N/A
Captive Hilt Chain 6 in 1AR of 7.2AR of 7.2
Hilt Fire WyrmAR of 7.9AR of 10.8 (+2.9)
Hilt Thunder WyrmAR of 8.3AR of 9.9 (+1.6)
Hilt Lightning WyrmAR of 9.4AR of 11.1 (+1.7)
Hilt Wind WyrmAR of 9.1AR of 10.8 (+1.7)
Hilt Earth WyrmAR of 9.4AR of 11.1 (+1.7)
Hilt Sun WyrmAR of 8.7AR of 9.1 (+0.4)**
Box (Box Chain)AR of 5.5N/A
Captive Box
(Captive 4 in 1 Box)
AR of 5.1AR of 3.6 (-1.5)
Reinforced Fire BoxAR of 7.0AR of 7.0
Reinforced Wind BoxAR of 7.9AR of 7.9


*Bore Worm, and Reinforced Inverted Round, usually use the same size for each ring type. Those displayed are minimized versions.
**Hilt Sun Wyrm would benefit from a slightly larger reinforced ring size ~(+0.8).




Tao/Not Tao


Tao and Not Tao units, chains, and sheet repetitions contain reinforced rings. They are either:

Tao 3; Not Tao 3, Not Tao 4, Not Tao 5, Not Tao 6, and beyond have one reinforced ring on each side of a single unit. Upanishad Unit, which is based on NT3 has three sets. Repeating pairs of these reinforced rings are found in sheet expansions of these units. These include:

The individual units found in Tao 4 on the other hand, have one reinforced ring found on the inside, reinforcing its 4 otherwise cage rings.

The rings found in these units and weaves each reinforce their cells in the same manner as those occurring in Bore Worm and Reinforced Inverted Round.

Units:


Tao 3:
Image: tao3.jpg
.062" (1.6mm) stainless steel, bronze
1/4" (6.35mm), 5/16" (7.94mm) mandrels
.269", .341" ID
AR of 4.3, AR of 5.5

Not Tao 3:
3 small vertical rings
2 intermediate reinforcing rings
3 large corner rings
Image: nt3.jpg
.080" (2.0mm) aluminum
31/128", 31/64", 13/32" mandrels
.258", .446", .532" ID
AR of 3.2, AR of 5.6, AR of 6.7

Not Tao 4:
4 small vertical rings
2 large reinforcing rings
4 intermediate corner rings
Image: nt4.jpg
.062" (1.6mm) copper, stainless steel, stainless steel
13/64" (5.16mm), 1/2" (12.7mm), 13/32" (10.3mm) mandrels
.216", .557", .452" ID
AR of 3.4, AR of 9.0, AR of 7.3

Not Tao 5:
5 small vertical rings in .048" (1.2mm) bronze: 13/64" (5.16mm)
2 large reinforcing rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: 1/2" (12.7mm)
5 intermediate corner rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: 9/32" (7.14mm)
Image: nt5.jpg

Ring sizes listed refer to mandrel size.

Not Tao 6:
6 small vertical rings in .048" (1.2mm) bronze: 13/64" (5.16mm)
2 large reinforcing rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: .602" (15.3mm)
6 intermediate corner rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: 9/32" (7.14mm)
Image: nt6.jpg

Ring sizes listed refer to mandrel size. The .602" mandrel sprung back the .062" stainless steel to .687" ID.

Not Tao 7:
7 small vertical rings in .048" (1.2mm) bronze: 13/64" (5.16mm)
2 large reinforcing rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: .708" (18.0mm)
7 intermediate corner rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: 9/32" (7.14mm)
Image: nt7.jpg

Ring sizes listed refer to mandrel size. The .708" mandrel sprung back the .062" stainless steel to .833" ID.

Not Tao 8:
8 small vertical rings in .048" (1.2mm) bronze: 13/64" (5.16mm)
2 large reinforcing rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: .708" (18.0mm)
8 intermediate corner rings in .062" (1.6mm) stainless steel: 29/128" (5.75mm)
Image: nt8.jpg

Ring sizes listed refer to mandrel size. The .708" mandrel sprung back the .062" stainless steel to .833" ID.

Not Tao 9:
9 small vertical rings in .048" (1.2mm) bronze: 15/64" (5.95mm)
2 large reinforcing rings in .080" (2.0mm) stainless steel: .850" (21.6mm)
9 intermediate corner rings in .062" (1.6mm) nickel silver: 7/32" (5.56mm)
Image: nt9.jpg

Ring sizes listed refer to mandrel size. The .850" mandrel sprung back the .080" stainless steel to .969" ID.

Upanishad Unit:
Image: upanishad.jpg
.080" (2.0mm) aluminum
31/128" (6.15mm), 29/128" (5.75mm), 31/64" (12.3mm), 13/32" (10.3mm) mandrels
.258", .243", .532", .446" ID
AR of 3.2, AR of 3.0, AR of 6.7, AR of 5.6


Sheets:


Tao 3 Sheet:

Image: tao3sheet.jpg
.048" stainless steel, brass, bronze
3/8" (9.525mm), 5/16" (7.94mm), 9/32" (7.14mm) mandrels
.435", .358", .312" ID
AR of 9.1, AR of 7.5, AR of 6.5

Not Tao 3 Sheets To The Wind:

Image: nt3sheet.jpg
.062" aluminum, stainless steel, aluminum
27/128" (5.36mm), 25/64" (9.92mm), 11/32" (8.73mm) mandrels
231", 432", 378" ID
AR of 3.7, AR of 7.0, AR of 6.1

NT3 (Not Tao 3) Web:
Image: nt3web.jpg
.047" (1.19mm) aluminum
3/16" (4.76mm), 27/128" (5.36mm) MD
.206", .234" ID
AR of 4.4, AR of 5.0

Original URL: http://www.mailleartisans.org/articles/articledisplay.php?key=786